Honda has developed a five-fingered hand powered hydraulic mechanism. Mechanisms applied in the brake master cylinder are using a car. Five fingers working in conjunction with a motor, can grasp objects of different shapes. Since you want to be equipped with smaller motors at each joint. Combines the strength and dexterity as a robot hand for a few know how to keep working.
Each day work accidents, car accidents and disease are factors which no one is free from suffering so you can lose a hand.
Today other high technology prosthetic arms can cost total up to $59,000 after surgeries, therapies, maintenance, etc. In other words technology is out of reach for the Mexican market, and this is the unattended market that the project seeks to fulfill.
Gesture-driven robots are nothing new, but this robot arm, developed at Japan’s Tsukuba University, stands out with some impressive tech. The system lets humans control the arm by analyzing the movements of their hands and arms based on a video stream (the arm then replicates those movements almost in real-time). (more…)
This impressive early prototype demands an important place within robotics history as the first motorized dexterous robotic hand. It represents one of the early steps towards making robots more anthropomorphic. The Omni-Hand was designed and built in the early 1990s by robot pioneer Mark Rosheim with funding from NASA contracts NAS8-37638 and NAS8-38417. Two prototypes were made. The first was a “test bed” whose features were then incorporated into this complete unit. Both had the same power and control system.
The machine draws the calligraphic lines with high precision. Like a monk in the scriptorium it creates step by step the text and writes down the bible on rolls of paper.
Starting with the old testament and the books of Moses ‘bios [bible]’ produces within seven month continuously the whole book. All 66 books of the bible are written on rolls and then retained and presented in the library of the installation.
German researchers may have an anthropomorphic robot handthat a collision with hard objects, and even the strike, without breaking into pieces survive Hammer built.
In designing the new site, a researcher at the Institute of Roboticsand Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center, part of the (DLR),focused on resilience. You may only have built a robot hand of themost difficult yet.
DLR hand has articulated a shape and size of the human hand withfive fingers through a network of 38 tendons each with a singleengine supports the forearm.
The main features of the DLR from the hand of the other robot cancontrol it its rigidity. The engine can strain the tendon, which thehand can to absorb the shock of the violence. In one study, theresearcher’s hand collided with a baseball bat the effects of the66th G Good hands.
The video below shows the movement of the fingers and wasbeaten with a hammer and metal bars:
DLR team did not want to build a copy of the correct anatomy of the human hand, like other teams. They want to hand, which can lead asa human hand in terms of both skill and strength.The hand has 19 degrees of freedom, or just one less than the real thing, and your fingers can move independently of each other toidentify different objects. The radius can be up to 30 Newton force of the fingertip, which makes this hand is also one of the most powerfulever built.
Another key element in the design of the DLR is a spring mechanism that is attached to each tendon. This [photo left] springsto yield the tendon, which is made from super strong synthetic fibercalled Dyneema, greater flexibility, allowing fingers to absorb andrelease energy, just as our own hands. This capability is key to achieving sustainability and to mimic the properties of thekinematics, dynamics and force the hand of man.
During normal operation, the finger joints can rotate 500 degrees per second. With the spring tension, then release their energy to produce more torque, speed can reach 2000 degrees per joint second. This means that the robot hand can do something few, if any, are: finger pressure.
Why build a super strong hand?
Mark Grebenstein, lead designer’s hand, said that the robot is built by hand the rigid, although they look Terminator-drive, relatively fragile. Even a small collision with the police a few tens of Newton,can move the joints and fingers to tear apart. “If every time the robot knocked on his hands, arms broken, we will have a big problem distribution service robots in the real world,”said Grebenstein.
To change its stiffness, DLR hand drive using known antagonists.The joints of each [photo below] finger is driven by two tendons,each attached to the motor. When the motors rotate in the same direction, movement joints, as they rotate in the opposite direction,which tightened together.
Before developing a new hand, Grebenstein has designed another advanced robot, Justin humanoid. He said that in the experiment throwing heavy balls and Justin have to try to catch them. “The impact would be a distortion of the joints beyond their borders and kill your fingers,” he said. New hand can catch a ball thrown several yards. Mechanisms for implementation and spring can absorb the kinetic energy without structural damage. But hands can not always be stiff. For tasks that require precise handling, better to have a hand with low stiffness. By adjusting the machine tendon, could DLR hand. To operate by hand, researchers used a special sensor gloves or simply send take command. The control system is based on joint angle control. He does not need to control impedance, Grebenstein said, because the hand is compliance in mechanics. To detect if an object is soft and should be treated more gently, the steps to force the hand with a track extension of the spring mechanism. “In terms of grip and agility, we are very close to the human hand, he said, adding that the new hand is” miles ahead “of Justin’s hand. About 13 people work on the one hand, and Grebenstein emphasize that it is difficult to estimate the project cost. But he said the cost of the hand between 70,000 and € 100,000. Researchers are trying to build a trunk full of two arms called the DLR Hand Arm System. Their plan is to explore innovative strategies to capture and manipulation, including manipulation with both hands. Grebenstein hope that their new approach to design by hand will help you progress in the field of service robots. He said the robotic equipment is now limiting new development because it is expensive and the researchers were not able to perform experiments that could damage them. “The problem is, he says,” you can not learn without experience. ”
The new rocket-powered robotic arm, shown in this diagram, is stronger and faster than the ones on the market. Here’s how it works: The propellant cartridge contains pressurized liquid hydrogen peroxide, which is routed through two flexible lines (not shown) across the elbow joint and into two catalyst packs. The catalyst burns the hydrogen peroxide, generating steam that pushes pistons up and down — allowing the arm to move. Michael Goldfarb, a professor at Vanderbilt University, has led the development of a prosthetic arm that, get this, is powered by miniature rocket motor systems! The fuel, hydrogen peroxide, is burnt in a catalytic reaction generating steam that opens and closes valves connected to the joints of the arm. The mechanical parts that make up the arm were precision machined to avoid any leaks. A small canister of hydrogen peroxide loaded into the arm provides sufficient energy to allow 18 hours of normal arm movement! At 450°F (232°C) one would think the super-heated steam would cause a tincy mincy discomfort to the user. Fortunately, the researchers thought of end-user comfort and insulated the really (really) hot parts of the arm. Look at the video.. the motion is quite amazing. The thumb and fingers are controlled independently. It probably sounds really cool too!
“Our design does not have superhuman strength or capability, but it is closer in terms of function and power to a human arm than any previous prosthetic device that is self-powered and weighs about the same as a natural arm,” said researcher Michael Goldfarb, a roboticist at Vanderbilt University in Nashville. Conventional prosthetic arms do not have the strength of their flesh-and-blood counterparts, the reason being the batteries. In order to lift comparable weights, a prosthetic arm would need a massive battery, too large for the prosthesis itself. So (project leader) Michael Goldfarb started thinking about other ways to power the artificial limbs, and came up with the idea of using the monopropellant rocket motor system that the space shuttle uses to maneuver in space.
The researchers say their fuel system is superior to the traditional method of powering prostheses, batteries. Batteries are heavy relative to the power they produce; the rocket-powered arm, says Michael Goldfarb, the professor who led the team, produces more power with less weight than limbs that use other power sources.
The prototype also produces more natural movement that conventional prosthetic arms. Instead of two joints — typical arms only move at the elbow and at the “claw” — the new device has fingers that can open and close independently of each other, and a wrist that twists and bends.
The Vanderbilt engineers are competing with teams at several other universities and corporations in a program that the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency calls “Revolutionizing Prosthetics 2009,” an effort to build an advanced bionic arm to help soldiers who’ve been injured at war perform the sort of daily tasks most of take for granted.
An exploration into the practicality of a flexible jointed, as opposed to traditional hinge jointed, finger for robotics and prosthetics applications.
Design emphasis: durability and safety in real world interactions
It is a hard truth of robot arm design that as one works outward from the torso to the fingertips, parts become smaller, more numerous, and more delicate. This is why robot hands have tended to be delicate and expensive. Yet it is this most delicate part of the robot – the hand – that must physically interact with the real world. And these interactions, bumpy in the best of times, can be violent during the long process of software development. A bad line of software can crash a hand, resulting in major repair costs and delays.
Clearly, for AI software development in the area of manipulation to proceed apace, as well as for robotic and prosthetic hand usage in gereral, a robustness-centric approach to hands and fingers is key. One approach to achieve robustness is structural compliance (e.g. a finger with rubber parts that give). Another is high strength (e.g. titanium hinge joints). How these various approaches perform in the harsh test of reality can only be known by building and testing.
Novel fabrication techniques were a big part of this project, which is more akin to SDM (shape deposition manufacturing) than traditional methods. Various molding and casting operations, as well as some machining, were involved in the fabrication of these fingers. To the right is shown an early silicone finger mold being made around a delrin and teflon tube pattern. There’s a big difference between a nice design and a nice design that lasts. Repetitive and overstress testing are essential when dealing with novel material arrangements like these – there are no roadmaps. Realistic tests quickly illuminate misconceptions, strengths and weaknesses in a design, and form the basis for design evolution. A 2 axis tendon pulling machine with counters was built which allowed unattended repetitive tests of tendons, joints and whole fingers. Various loads and ranges of motion could be tried. 100K reps was deemed an acceptable longevity. Central to this design is the cable-reinforced urethane bender, 3 different types of which form the “hinge joints” of a finger. Cast-in tunnels for wiring run down the center, and the dual “X” cables provide torsional rigidity. Physical keying and cable stubs keep the benders in place within epoxy “bones”. Urethane thermoset elastomers such as this are very rugged, with excellent tear and abrasion resistance. The downside to any rubber joint strategy, however, is the force required to bend it. These rubbers also do not immediately return all the way.
Research and Development by Carl Pisaturo in association with Jeff Weber, MIT Media Lab
Aprox. Human Size: 5″ long x .75″ high x .6″ wide Urethane Rubber, Stainless Steel Cable, Epoxy, Delin rollers, Teflon Tubing. About Human Size 3 Degrees of Freedom 1 or 2 Actuators Reasonable Grasp Strength Excellent Abuse Tolerance Excellent Longevity Reasonable Torsional Rigidity Wiring Tunnels to Each Segment Lightweight – 35 grams
When she was on the Cal Tennis Club, Yoko “Yoky” Matsuoka (B.S.’93 EECS) dreamed of creating a robotic opponent that could return balls to her over the net. That bot never materialized, but her desire to build it launched a groundbreaking career that earned her a 2007 MacArthur “genius” award, a no-strings-attached, $500,000 honor from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation recognizing Matsuoka’s bold research in neurobotics—neuroscience meets robotics—most notably her efforts in developing a brain-powered prosthetic hand.
A native of Japan, Matsuoka grew up in Santa Barbara, California. After graduating from Berkeley, she earned her master’s and doctorate at MIT, then joined the faculty at Carnegie Mellon. In 2006, she joined the University of Washington, where she is now associate professor of computer science and engineering and on the research team at UW’s Neurobotics Lab.
“Moving forward 25 to 30 years, we have to achieve very dexterous behavior,” Matsuoka says. Current prosthetic options are stiff and provide only limited motion. But her approach could give amputees the ability to operate a replacement limb without, well, giving it a second thought.
Matsuoka and team modeled a robotic prosthesis on an actual human appendage and wired it to function like the real thing. The device incorporates lifelike “bones” made from composite that articulate when mini-motors drive nylon polymer “tendons” to curl or flex a finger. In place of the brain signals that control movement in a normal hand, this creation uses neural data from real patients, transformed by algorithms into pulses that drive the motors. Matsuoka hopes that one day, an amputee will be able to attach the limb and operate it just as they would a biological one—with brain power.
“Assume you’re missing your arm, and we give you a complex robotic prosthesis that has nothing to do with how your brain actually controls your arm,” she says. “If we can provide a system that looks and functions like a real system, your brain doesn’t have to work as hard to control it.”
Matsuoka also built a robotic arm that safely guides individuals recovering from strokes and other neurological problems through their physical therapy regimes. With her newfound MacArthur funding, she has visions of starting a company, “writing a book or three” and working with K–12 institutions, all with the goal of speeding up the timetable for bringing neurobotic technology into our daily lives.