The equations used in the calculator to determine the torque required at any given lifting joint (raising the arm vertically) in a robotic arm are presented here. Note that the term “actuator” is used rather than motor because not all robotic arms necessarily use servo motors (some may use pneumatics, hydraulics, etc.).
Torque (T) is defined as a turning or twisting “force” and is calculated using the following relation:
The force (F) acts at a length (L) from a pivot point. In a vertical plane, the force acting on an object (causing it to fall) is the acceleration due to gravity (g = 9.81m/s2) multiplied by its mass: